Marine earth science or geological oceanography is that the study of the history and structure of the ocean floor. It involves geology, geochemical, sedimentological and paleontological investigations of the ocean floor and coastal zone. Marine earth science has robust ties to geology and to physical earth science. Marine matter surroundings centred on palaeontology, geo biology, pale-oceanography and archaeology, organic and inorganic atom biogeochemistry, marine minerals, carbonate sedimentology and therefore the physical properties of sediments and crustal rocks. more than half of our nation's population lives among fifty miles of the coast. Healthy coastal and offshore resources area unit very important to our nation's economy. The USGS studies coastal modification, hazards that impact coastal areas, ocean resources, and coastal and marine ecosystems.